Project Plan For Functionality-Based SDLC


A number of methods evolved in managing a Software Project during the past decade. Whether it is a Traditional or Agile Development, the emphasis on the phases of the Software Development Life Cycle remain unchanged. While the earlier Project Managers are inclined more to the principles of Managing the Projects, their competencies in the technology that is being used in the Project are least bothered. The rapid change in Technology and the Internet Boom made the newer generation of Project Managers to be competent technically and experienced in Principles of Project Management(2) . Globalization and Outsourcing of IT Projects demanded additional skills for managing these Projects.

In this challenging IT World, creating a project plan with cost-savings techniques and better metrics for quality assurance became an ever-demanding task for the current Project Managers.

When the Software Project Manager is well-versed in the business process and experienced in Software Development/Analysis, then this author believes that the below explained “Functionality-Based SDLC” will be more successful when compared to the traditional SDLC.

Major Functions Identification:For any application, the best way to identify the functions involved is to discuss more with the Business Community. The End-Users are the best resources for gathering the requirements and identifying the tasks and grouping them into functions. In most of the Software Projects, it’s the Project Manager who decides how to plan the Project and get it executed. Theoretically, it works if the Project Manager had any previous experience as a Business Analyst or a Systems Analyst.

Since most of the Projects are not started from scratch, there is always the business process flow for most of the functionalities and their inter-dependencies already in place. The primary task is to gather all the functionalities required to be developed or enhanced based on the Project Scope. Organizing these functionalities at a higher level for presenting to the Business Community and Senior Management will provide a better commitment to the Project Manager. This Presentation would be the first step for the Business Sponsors and the Project Manager to come to an agreement that all the functionalities are within the Scope defined. Any miscommunication or misleading information MUST be clarified at this stage. Most of the failed Software Projects are due to lack of clarity in the Project Scope.

Digging through more in detail for each functionality with the Business Community and in particular with the responsible End-Users provides a better understanding of how the Project should be planned. During this Phase, the author expects the Project Manager to be well-versed technically about the in-and-out of the Business Process. A Technical Leader might be a catalyst during this Phase.

Once the detailed functionalities are identified, they can be further organized as Independent and Dependable Functionalities. Breaking down the functionalities to the lowest level possible at this phase will be more helpful while planning for the Work Allocation, Identifying the Team Size, Identifying the technical skills required.

Project Planning:The Functional Process Flow used the Arrow Diagramming Method. The Forward Arrows indicate that the Next Functionality that need to be started once the existing one is finished.

For each Functionality, the SDLC phase consists of:

Fn Rn – Requirements Gathering (Where nis the Functionality Number)

Fn Tn – Test Cases Preparation

Fn Dn – Detail Design Documentation

Fn Cn – Source Code Development

Fn Un – Unit Testing

Planning for each functionality relies on the time taken to gather the requirements. Gathering all requirements for Independent Functionalities should be the first priority. While the Team is busy in progressing other phases of Software development for these Independent Functions, the Project Leader/Manager will have sufficient time to gather the requirements for functions that are depend on each other. Once again, I would like to emphasize that a Software Project Manager with experience in Programming would be an added advantage during this crucial phase.

In the below diagram, after the completion of gathering Requirements for Functionality 1 is completed, the other tasks pertaining to that Functionality can be started. While the Team is working on these Tasks, the Requirements for the Next Functionality can begin. During this planning phase, the Project Manager would be able to identify the Team Work Load and any possible delays. All adjustments to workload breakdown between the Team Members must be finalized during this Phase. To avoid panic due to any unexpected risks (viz. Team Member leaving in the middle of the Project or delay in Software Licensing or delay of acquiring the required Hardware etc..) it is advisable to add at least 15% to 20% of the planned time. Any extra time during any phase will be an added advantage for the Team to work for the next phase with less stress.

Critical Functionality Path (CFP) Evaluation: It can be defined as the Path from Start to End where more interdependent functionalities are involved.

Any change in plan for any one of the functionality would have a major impact on the next dependent Functionality. To avoid any such mishaps, extra time must be included for each inter-related functions during the planning phase.

A Hypothetical Case Study – “Retail Pharmacy Medicines Dispensing System (RPMDS)

“In this hypothetical case study the project manager is assumed to have experience in Software Development in HealthCare Industry. The Project Manger identified the individual and interdependent Tasks. Based on the number of Software Professionals assigned to the Project, the Project is planned.

For this Application, various functionalities are identified as follows:

Individual Tasks:

– IT1 – New Prescription Input

– IT2 – Refill Prescription Input

– IT3 – Fill the Medicine (Assumption is Made that HMO/PPO authorized )

Interdependent Tasks:

– DT1 – Gather Prescription Information – Depends on task IT2

– DT2 – Authorization from HMO/PPO – Depends on task IT1 and/or DT1

– DT3 – Print the Co-pay Amount – Depends on DT2

– DT4 – Bill the Insurance – Depends on DT2

Critical Functionality: DT2 – Authorization from HMO/PPO

In this Arrow Diagram, Function 4 can be started as soon as Function 1 is completed. By planning intelligently, by the tine Function 3 gets done, Function 4 must be in its final finishing phase.

Since Function 5 is independent, it can be started with an assumption that the HMO/PPO authorized to fill the Medicines as per prescribed.

After completion of Function 4, Function 6 and 7 can be started in parallel.

In this Case, the CFP is: F2 — F3 — F4 — F7

At this point, the Project Manager can plan in two ways:

Plan 1: Divide the Project Team into exactly two groups and assign one group the Individual and the other the Interdependency Tasks.

Plan 2: Assign each task to each member of the team as mentioned in the Arrow Diagramming Method.

What ever the Plan the Project Manager chooses, there is always a risk associated with it. The best way to minimize the risk comes from the past experience.


This paper has dealt more in detail how to plan a project if the functionalities are clear and their inter-relationships are identifiable. For large scale projects the functionalities can be identified at a higher level and for each functionality the same process can be repeated. The deeper the functionalities are broken-down for simplicity purposes the higher chances of getting them completed with minimum risk. Be cautious, too deep might let you fall in an endless dark tunnel. As emphasized earlier, a technically competent & experienced Project Manager can decide the depth.

Medical Savings Plans Can Help Struggling Businesses

A number of small and mid-sized company owners medical insurance coverage is not always a benefit that they can make available for employees. It’s not that they don’t want to present the company’s personnel major health insurance they plainly are not able to afford to pay this particular money. With the economic conditions within the Unites States in the status it’s now in, many small businesses tend to be hardly equipped to remain in business at all. They most certainly can’t manage to pay for the vast majority of so named major medical insurance policies that a majority of insurance organizations now have to provide you with. It can put them in a very tough spot. They want to provide the benefits to their employees deserve and need, yet they must put the needs of their business first and insurance and other benefits may just not be feasible.

For business owners in this situation there are other options available that are designed to help with out-of-pocket medical expenses. One option they might want to consider is providing their employees with affordable health care discount healthcare plans. There are numerous discount medical plan organizations in today’s market supplying group discount medical plans that numerous businesses are now providing to help their valuable employees. These types of organizations provide you with discount health care plans that aren’t insurance but nevertheless provide a individual an opportunity to help save considerably on medical related services and these plans usually incorporate extra lifestyle related benefits designed to provide extra financial savings on everyday bills.

These kind of solutions are membership based programs where members pay monthly membership fees and are able to get discounts for numerous healthcare services as offered by physicians and other service providers who’ve enlisted as providers in the networks offered by the plan. The networks used by these types of medical savings plans in many cases are the very same networks that insurance providers make use of for their insurance products. Members of the aforementioned discount medical plans are generally provided exactly the same discounts that insurance companies receive. These types of discounts are based on a pricing schedule determined with the provider network and change according to the service given to a participant. In most situations these kinds of discounts will present the particular member with 15% to 40% savings when compared to the normal service price the particular provider would impose.

Discount health care programs like these may offer a tremendous amount of price reductions on a variety of health-related services together with other regular expenses. The vast majority of membership products in today’s marketplace will provide various supplemental health related services similar to dental care, vision, prescription medication, chiropractic care along with alternative healthcare cost savings along with 24 / 7 hotlines to registered nurse practitioners along with licensed medical doctors which can potentially prescribe prescription drugs over the telephone whenever suitable. These kinds of plans usually feature a number of non-medical related offerings along the lines of legal discount rates, id theft products, road side assistance products as well as shopping discounts in order to name just a few. This marketplace is incredibly demanding and people can discover top notch products and solutions for as affordable as $29 each month. Solutions like these medical savings programs are not insurance nor will they be designed to substitute major health insurance at any rate, but nonetheless, with the prices associated with insurance coverage so outlandish, this can be a workable option which a small company can give to their employees at an easily affordable price.

A large number of small and mid-sized companies are already beginning to incorporate medical savings products or services with high deductible insurance coverages, this sort of hybrid will be able to help save hundreds of dollars per month for every employee in premium fees to the employer and also have the benefit of an insurance coverage for significant health care bills along with special discounts on various other medicine and health bills employees accumulate intended for dentistry, vision, prescription medication and many more.

Health cost savings solutions like these really should be examined carefully before one signs up for it. They usually can offer group discounts to companies who prepare to enroll their employees, but even with these discounts, it is still important to do your homework. Generally the networks offered by these programs are the same so it’s imperative that you go through the actual number and type of benefits offered for the price you will pay. Make sure that they have a good selection of benefits that suit the needs of the employees that will use them.

In today’s tough economy, it is important for employers to explore all options when it comes to saving money and this is particularly true for small business owners. Using a group discount medical plan may be a good option for saving money while still being able to help employees find affordable health care plans and receive other discounted services. It can also provide a way for an employer, who had to completely cancel employee insurance coverage previously, a means to offer their employees a different choice to aid with healthcare costs.